Artificial intelligence can be defined as:
- Study colleges of mind through the use of mathematical models. CHARNLAK & MCDERMOTT 1985
- The exciting new effort to make computers think … machines with consideration, in the full and literal sense. Hagland 1985
- The art of creating machines that perform jobs that require intelligence when people do them. Croswell 1990
- A field of study that seeks to explain and simulate intelligent behavior in terms of mathematical operations. Schalkov 1990
- Study how to make computers do things where people are better today. Rich and Knight 2003
- Study accounts that make it possible to perceive, reason and act. Winston 1992
- Computer science branch that is interested in automating smart behavior. LUGER & STUBBLEFIELD 1993
According to these definitions, computer systems can be classified into the following categories.
- Systems that act like humans
- A system that thinks like a human
- Systems thinking rationally
- A system that behaves rationally
1. a system that behaves like a human
The Turing Test, proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence, whereby Turing defined intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve human performance in all cognitive tasks sufficient to deceive an investigator. Roughly, the test he suggested is that a computer should be questioned by a person via teletype; he will pass the test if the investigator cannot tell if there is a computer or a person on the other end.
2. The system that thinks like a human
Several important programming projects began in the late 1950s. Among them was the General Problem Solver (GPS). Neol and Simon, who developed the GPS in 1961, were not satisfied with their software correctly solving problems. They were more interested in comparing the impact of his thinking steps with the people who solve the same problem (Yazdani & Narayanana 1985). This contrasts with the ideas of other researchers at the same time (Wang 1960), who were interested in getting the right answers no matter how a person did this. The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science combines computer models on artificial intelligence and experimental techniques from psychology to attempt to build testable theories about the workings of the human mind.
The Turing Standard was introduced to ensure that this distinction is not clear in the form of a test called "imitation game", a new way to solve the problem "Can a thinking machine?". Dr. Alan Turing compares computers with humans to decide if a machine can think. The game is played with three people: a man (a), a woman (b), and a detective (x) of either gender. A and B stay in a room apart from X, who doesn't know which A and B are men and women. Its goal is to correctly determine the gender of A and B by asking them questions. X cannot see or hear A or B but it passes messages through a medium, which could be an email system or anyone else. While answering questions, A and B complement each other to confuse the investigator. Finally, he ruled based on their responses. Now the game is played by replacing either A or B with a device and the original question is replaced by the following questions: "What will happen when the device takes Part A in this game?". "Can the investigator make a mistake when the game is played this way as it does when the game is played between a man and a woman?"
If the answer to the second question is positive, then the device passes the Turing test and can, according to this specific standard, think (Tanimoto 1987). However, in practice, the result of such a test may be highly dependent on the humans concerned as well as on the device.
In 1973, Colby, Hilf Weber, and Kramer published test results such as the Discrimination Test with their PARRY program. This program is a computer simulation that displays behavior similar to that of human paranoid patients. The doctor who ruled the computer versus the patients failed to accurately distinguish the computer, and claimed that the test had succeeded.
3. Systems that think rationally
The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the first to try writing down “Right Thinking”. His famous methodologies have provided argument structures that always provide valid and valid conclusions, for example, "X is a man, all human beings are deadly; therefore X is mortal." These laws of thought were supposed to govern the laws of reason, and proposed the field of logic.
4. Systems that operate rationally
In the "laws of thought" approach to AI, the whole focus was on correct inference. Making the right inferences is sometimes part of being a rational agent, because one way of rational behavior is through logical reasoning in the conclusion that a particular action will achieve those actions's goal, and then work to infer. On the other hand, correct inference is not entirely rational, because there are often situations where there is nothing right to do, but something still needs to be done, for example, pulling one hand out of a hot oven the most successful reflex action that is done Its implementation after careful deliberations.
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