In the 1960s, the Dartmouth BASIC (7) programming language was designed and implemented by Dartmouth College by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz. Over time, BASIC has become a common language for home users and business use, it has brought a lot of people to programming as a hobby or profession. Many modern concepts of computer graphics, dynamic objects, and object oriented programming were designed by Evan Sutherland in 1963 in Sketchpad (13) (14). In the mid-1960s, Seymour Papert, a mathematician who worked with Piaget in Geneva, came to the United States where he co-founded the MIT AI laboratory with Marvin Minsky. Papert worked with a team of Bolt, Beranek, and Newman, led by Wallace Feurzeig who created the first version of Logo (25) in 1967. In the late 1960s, Alan Kay (2) (3) (17) used the term & # 39; PC 'He created a prototype for a concept, FLEX machine, he also envisioned' Dynabook 'device, graphics for this are very similar to laptops in recent years. Simula (28) was developed by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard and this may include object oriented concepts. Douglas Engelbert has worked on a project to increase human thought, as part of the Augment (8) project he presents at hypertext and video conferences.


Alan Kay joined the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) (17) (19) in California in 1971. Throughout the 1970s, the group at PARC led by Dr. Kay developed an integrated programming and programming language environment called Smalltalk (10). In the early 1970s the Alto personal machine was created in PARC. Finally, Alto displayed the first What-You-See-Is-What-You-Editor (WYSIWYG) you get, a commercial input mouse, a graphical user interface (GUI), a bit display, and menus and icons displayed, and connected to a local network. Alto provided the basis for the Xerox STAR 8010 information system. There is still a need to find common use of a PC that will increase demand for it. In 1978 Daniel Bricklin, a Harvard Business School student, came up with an idea for an interactive visual calculator. Bricklin and Bob Frankston co-invented the VisiCalc (1) software. VisiCalc was a spreadsheet and first killer 'application for personal computers because this application provides a justification for using personal computers as a productive tool.


During the 1980s, ownership of personal computers became popular, and many home users were programmed using BASIC. In the early 1980s, IBM developed the first personal computer built from rack parts (called open architecture) (15). This included a Microsoft command-line operating system and Microsoft BASIC programming language. Apple developed a graphical user interface (LI) for more Lisa (5) which later became the Macintosh (Mac). The IBM computer has become the most popular style for business applications, while Apple Mac has been used mostly for desktop publishing.


End-user programming research continues to this day. Research continued in visual programming techniques (9) such as Alice (4), programming by example (2) (21), automatic aided programming (20), and natural language programming (27). Squeak and Croquet (6) evolved from early work in your smallness.

Tim Berners-Lee (23) developed Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), and participated in the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) (29) in developing standards-based languages ​​for the Web. This has encouraged the growth of 'Semantic Web' (11) which allows both humans and computers to more closely search and interact with pages, thus encouraging the development of interactive webpages and societies.


Modern, current and future research can enable the use of semantic web technologies (developed by HTML by Tim Berners-Lee (23) and others), to enable end-user programming. This fusion of research and technology is illustrated on the home page of Henry Lieberman (12), which contains illustrations of both areas of research. Examples of this fusion are Protégé (22), Jena (16), TopBraid Composer (24), and OpenCyc (18). Information about these technologies is available on my semantic webpage – http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/amrc/seeds/PeterHale/RDF/RDF.htm. A related development is Web Development 2.0. AJAX-based visual development environments (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) (26) aim to reproduce on the web, a function that provides office tools such as Excel (which is often used as an end-user programming environment). Information about Ajax and Web 2.0 is available on my Ajax / web2.0 page – http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/amrc/seeds/Ajax/ajax.htm.


1. Brief History of Sheets – http://dssresources.com/history/sshistory.html – Decision Support System Resources – by DJ Power, Editor, DSSResources.COM.

2. Alan Kaye – http://www.acypher.com/wwid/FrontMatter/index.html – See what I do – Programming as examples.

3. Alan Kay ETech 2003 Presentation – http://www.lisarein.com/alankay/tour.html – Lisa Rein Tour Presentation from Alan Kay & Etech 2003 Presentation

4. Alice v2.0 – http://www.alice.org/ – Learn to program interactive 3D graphics.

5. Apple Lisa – http://fp3.antelecom.net/gcifu/applemuseum/lisa2.html – the first affordable graphical user interface – Lisa from January 1 to January 83 -84, Lisa January 2 to April 84 -85.

6. Croquet – http://www.opencroquet.org/ – A new open source software platform for creating multi-user applications on the Internet.

7. Dartmouth BASIC – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dartmouth_BASIC – Wikipedia.

8. The Demo – http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/1968Demo.html – Stanford University.

9. Dmoz Open Directory Project – http://dmoz.org/Computers/Programming/Languages/Visual/ – visual languages ​​- reference to programming languages ​​- visual languages.

10. The Early History of Smalltalk by Alan Kay – http://www.smalltalk.org/smalltalk/TheEarlyHistoryOfSmalltalk_II.html – 1967-69 – The FLEX Machine, first attempt on an OOP-based PC – Alan Kay – Smalltalk Café .

11. Fifteen years of the web – http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/5243862.stm – Internet Timeline – BBC Technology.

12. Henry Lieberman – http://web.media.mit.edu/~lieber/ – Research scientist – MIT Media Lab.

13. History of HCI – http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/gwmrauterberg/presentations/HCI-history – major systems, individuals and ideas – by Matthias Rothberg.

14. History of HCI – Sketchpad (1963) – http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/gwmrauterberg/presentations/HCI-history/sld020.htm – Ivan Sutherland – MIT Lab – Presentation by Matthias Rauterberg.

15. Modern Computer Inventors – http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa031599.htm – The History of IBM Computers – International Business Machines.

16. Jena – (http://jena.hpl.hp.com/juc2006/proceedings.html) – First Jena User Conference – Proceedings.

17. Kyoto Award Winners 2004 – (http://www.kyotoprize.org/commentary_kay.htm) – 2004 Kyoto Prize Laureates – Dr. Alan Curtis Kay (USA, born 1940) – computer scientist, head of Destination Research Institute Looking.

18. OpenCyc – http://www.opencyc.org/ – OpenCyc.org – general knowledge base and logical reasoning engine.

19. Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) – History – (http://www.parc.xerox.com/about/history/default.html) – PARC history.

20. Trainee for Programmers – http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=87912&dl=ACM&coll=GUIDE – ACM Digital Library.

21. Programming by Example – http://web.media.mit.edu/~lieber/PBE/index.html.

22. Protege – http://protege.stanford.edu/ – Protégé Home – Ontology Development Environment.

23. Tim Berners – (http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Lee) – Tim Berners-Lee.

24. TopBraid – http://www.topbraidcomposer.com/ – Semantic Modeling Toolkit – Visual Modeling Environment.

25. What is the logo? – http://el.media.mit.edu/Logo-foundation/logo/index.html – MIT Logo Foundation, What is Logo.

26. Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajax_%28programming%29 – Ajax (programming).

27. Wikipedia – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_and_computation – Natural language processing.

28. Simula – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simula – Simula.

29. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) – http://www.w3.org – Leading the Web to its fullest potential …


Leave a Reply