There is no written evidence that can tell us exactly who coined the term educational technology. Different education scientists, scholars, and philosophers have provided different definitions of educational technology. Educational technology is a multi-faceted and integrated process that includes people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization. Technology is borrowed from various fields of science according to the requirements of education and its requirements in order to implement, evaluate and manage solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.
Educational technology, on a large scale, has passed Five stages .
The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of methods such as graphs, maps, symbols, models, samples and concrete materials. The term educational technology has been used as a synonym for audio-visual aids.
The second stage of educational technology is associated with the 'electronic revolution' with the introduction and creation of advanced hardware and software. The use of many audiovisual aids such as projector, magic lanterns, tape recorder, radio and television has brought about a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, the concept of educational technology was taken in terms of these advanced tools and equipment for the effective presentation of educational materials.
The third stage of educational technology is associated with the development of the media, which in turn led to the communications revolution 'for educational purposes. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) used in education since the 1950s became popular during this era.
The fourth stage of educational technology can be distinguished by the individual learning process. The invention of programmed learning and programmed education has provided a new dimension to educational technology. A self-learning system based on self-teaching materials and teaching machines has emerged.
The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach that focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed education, multimedia technologies and the use of computers in teaching. Accordingly, educational technology is a systematic way to design, implement and evaluate the overall process of teaching and learning in terms of specific research-based goals.
Educational technology during the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age
Educational technology, although uncertain as to the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the system period in the three-year prehistoric human period: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.
During the Stone Age, setting fire to rubbing stones and manufacturing various hand weapons and stone and clothing wares were some simple technological developments of extreme importance. A small segment of the Stone Age people developed the technology of rowing ships that deserve the ocean to move from one place to another across the ocean, as they developed their first informal education of ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, and star space, maps. During the Late Stone Age (Neolithic) period, for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were manufactured from a wide variety of solid rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which could be considered the first steps in mining technology. Polished axes were very effective even after the emergence of bronze and iron; people got used to deforestation and establishing crop cultivation.
Although the Stone Age cultures did not leave written records, archaeological evidence showed their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlements. Some of the ancient tools preserved in different museums, cave paintings such as Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric arts, such as Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess of Laussel, France etc. are some clues in favor of their cultures.
The Neolithic revolution in the Stone Age led to the emergence of the Bronze Age with the development of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices, people in the Bronze Age developed metal smelting, where copper and subsequent bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, were the materials of their choice.
The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the technique of iron smelting to reduce the cost of living because iron tools were stronger and cheaper than their bronze counterparts. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written texts.
Educational technology during the period of ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saitler, 2004, educational technology can be traced back to the time that the method of tribal priests with ancient bodies of knowledge and cultures invented pictograms or signed on writing to record and transmit information. At every stage of human civilization, an educational method or set of actions aimed at implementing a specific culture can be found which was also supported by a number of investigations and evidence. The more advanced the culture, the more educational technology designed to reflect certain ways of individual and social behavior aimed at managing an educated community. Over the centuries, every major shift in educational values, goals, or goals has led to various techniques for education.
The greatest developments in technology and engineering came with the rise of ancient civilizations. These developments motivated and taught other societies in the world to embrace new ways of life and governance.
The Indus Valley civilization was one of the first civilizations of the Bronze Age, which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Civilization flourished primarily around the Indus River Basin in the Indus and Punjab region, and extends up to the Hakra River Valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Dwab Valley, (most of the part is under Pakistan and the United States today is modern India as well as part of the civilization extending into southeastern Afghanistan, and the eastern part Al-Aqsa from Baluchistan, Iran).
There is a long-standing debate to ascertain the language of the Harabanans. It was assumed that their writings were at least look or pictorial text. The text appears to contain around 400 basic tags, with many variations. People write their text with the overall direction from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and seals that may have been used in business, official, and administrative.
Harappan had knowledge of length, mass and time measurement tools. They were the first to develop a standardized weights and measures system in the world.
In a study by PN Rao et al. In 2009, published in the journal Science, computer scientists found that the Indus text style is closer to spoken words, which support the proposed hypothesis that suggests it is an unknown language to date.
According to Chinese civilization, some major art displays from China include paper, early earthquake detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plow, multi-tube seed drill, suspension bridge, handcart, canopy, and natural gas like fuel, magnetic compass, elevated relief map Blast furnace, fan, crossbow, south point cart, gun powder. With the invention of paper, they gave the first step towards developing educational technology by increasing the cultivation of various handmade products of paper as a visual method.
The ancient Egyptian language was once one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Its text consists of pictures of real objects such as birds, animals, various tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyphs. Their language was made up of more than 500 hieroglyphs known as hieroglyphs. On monuments or stone tombs that were discovered and saved, provide evidence of the existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphs in ancient Egypt.
Educational technology during the middle and modern ages
Paper and the pulp industry which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD was transferred to the Middle East and spread through the Islamic conquests. Evidence supports that the paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of the spinning wheel greatly increased the productivity of the yarn making process, and when Lin White added the spinning wheel with an increased supply of rags, this resulted in the production of inexpensive paper, which was a major factor in the development of printing technology.
The printing press was invented in about 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenberg, a German inventor. The invention of the printing press was a major development factor in the history of educational technology for communicating instructions according to the need of a sophisticated, sophisticated and advanced technology-educated community.
In the pre-industrial stages, while the industry was simply manual labor at the artisan level, educational processes relied heavily on simple objects such as tablets, century textbook, blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to one textbook with some illustrations. Educational technology was considered a synonym for simple tools such as graphics and images.
1873 can be considered a milestone in the early history of educational technology or audiovisual education. An international exhibition was held in Vienna at which an American school won the admiration of educators for the exhibition of maps, maps, textbooks and other equipment.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), world-renowned child teacher and publisher of the Montessori Method, has made a vital impact on educational technology by developing categorized materials designed to provide the correct subject sequence for each individual learner. Modern educational technology proposes a broad extension of Montessori's idea of a child-centered environment.
In 1833, Charles Babbage's design of a general purpose computing machine laid the foundation of a modern computer, and in 1943 the first high-tech computing device was created by International Business Machines Corporation in the USA. Computer Aided Help (CAI) in which the computer primarily operates as a Talking Type teacher and writer was developed by OK Moore in 1966. Since 1974 computers have been used interestingly in education in schools, colleges and universities.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, marked changes occurred in the field of education. Since its inception of the school broadcast in 1920, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has maintained a fast pace in making a sound contribution to formal education. In the United States of America, by 1952, there were 20 states devoted to educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time, about 98% of UK schools were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programs.
Sydney for. Brisney, a psychologist at Ohio State University who developed a self-learning machine called 'Drum Tutor' in 1920. But Professor Skinner, in his famous article "Learning and the Art of Teaching" implored in 1945 to apply knowledge derived from psychology Behavioral classroom procedures suggested automated learning devices as a way to do so.
Although the first practical use of regular television broadcasting was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games were broadcast in Berlin through television stations in Berlin, open circuit television was used primarily for broadcasting entertainment programs in the 1950's. Since 1960 It is used for educational purposes.
In 1950 Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It should be noted that in 1960, as a result of the industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also began to advance in the field of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology occurred in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.
During almost the 1950s, the new technocrat turned its appeal to education when there was a severe shortage of teachers in America, and therefore there was an urgent need for educational technology. Dr. Alvin C. Yorich, and soon after his colleague, introduced Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard technology of mass production in America.
Group teaching originated in America in the mid-1950s and first began in 1955 at Harvard University as part of an internship plan.
In 1956, Benjamin Bloom of the United States of America introduced the Classification of Educational Objectives by publishing "Classification of Educational Objectives, Classification of Educational Objectives, First Handbook: The Cognitive Domain".
In 1961, the method of micro-teaching was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his colleagues at Stanford University, USA.
Electronics is the main technology being developed at the beginning of the 21st century. Broadband internet access has become popular and occupied almost all offices and important educational places and even public places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers to music libraries and cell phones.
Today's semester is more likely to be a technical laboratory, a room with rows of students using internet-connected laptops, laptops, laptops, laptops, or maybe students attending video conferences or a virtual classroom, or they may Listen to a podcast or take a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in education have brought new ways to teach and learn. Technological changes have motivated teachers to access a variety of information globally over the Internet, to enhance their lessons and also to make them competent in their field of interest. At the same time, students can take advantage of the vast resources of the Internet to enrich their educational experience to keep pace with the changing trend in society. Now, students and teachers also attend national and international seminars, conferences and workshops by using multimedia technical resources such as PowerPoint and even pursuing a variety of important courses of their choice in distance development via online learning methods. The online learning facility has opened countless opportunities for the learner today to make their lives happier than ever.