3D computer graphics as seen on FaceYourArt.com

3D viewing with raytracing and ambient blockage with Blender and Yafray

3D computer graphics are artwork designed with the assistance of digital computers and 3D software. The term may also refer to the process of creating such graphics, or the field of study of 3D computer graphics technologies and related technology.

3D computer graphics differ from two-dimensional computer graphics where a three-dimensional representation of engineering data is stored in the computer for the purpose of performing calculations and presenting two-dimensional images. These images may be viewable at a later time or for viewing in real time.

3D modeling is the process of preparing engineering data for 3D computer graphics, which is similar to sculpting or photography, while the art of two-dimensional graphics is similar to drawing. Despite these differences, 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer graphics.

In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is sometimes unclear; 2D applications may use 3D technologies to achieve effects like lighting, and 3D may primarily use 2D technologies.


1 Technology

2 3D computer graphics creation modeling 2.1

3 Handling 3.1 Setting up scene layout

3.2 Mosaic and grille coverage

3.3 Submission

3.4 Projector 3.4.1 Projector

4 models for reflection and shading

5 APIs for 3D graphics

6 See also


(Edit) Technology

OpenGL and Direct3D are common APIs for creating real-time images. Real-time means that image creation occurs in real-time 'or' on the go 'and may be very interactive with the user. Many modern graphics cards provide a degree of hardware acceleration based on these APIs, often allowing complex 3D graphics to be rendered in real time.

(Edit) Create 3D computer graphics as it appears on FaceYourArt.com

A 3D model of a suspension bridge spanning an unusually calm body of water

Which makes the architecture composition of modeling and lighting finish the rendering process

The process of creating 3D computer graphics can be divided into three basic stages:

Content creation (3D modeling, texturing, animation)

Scene layout setting

call up

(Editing) Modeling

The modeling stage can be described as forming individual objects that will later be used in a scene. There are a number of modeling techniques, including but not limited to:

Constructive solid engineering

Modeling NURBS

Corrugated modeling

Partition surfaces

Implicit surfaces

Modeling operations may also include editing properties of a surface object or materials (such as color, luster, diffuse and speculative shading components – more commonly called roughness and luster, reflection properties, transparency or opacity, or index of refraction), adding materials, bump maps and other features.

Modeling may also include many activities related to preparing a 3D animation model (although in a complex character model this will become its own stage, known as faking). Objects may be provided with a skeleton, a central frame of an object with the ability to influence the shape or movements of that object. This aids in the animation process, as the movement of the skeleton will automatically affect the corresponding parts of the model. Also see forward kinematics and reverse animation. In the counterfeiting stage, the model can also be given specific controls to make animation easier and easier, such as facial expression controls and mouth shapes (audios) to encode lips.

Modeling can be done via a custom program (for example, Lightwave Modeler, Rhinoceros 3D and Moray), an application component (Shaper or Lofter in 3D Studio) or some scene description languages ​​(as in POV-Ray). In some cases, there is no strict distinction between these stages; in such cases, the design is part of the scene creation process (this is the case, for example, with Caligari trueSpace and Realsoft 3D).

A particle system is a block of three-dimensional coordinates containing points, polygons, division, or goblins. It acts as a volume to represent a shape.

(Edit) process

3D scene of eight red glass balls

(Edit) Scene Layout Setup

The scene setting includes arranging virtual objects, lights, cameras, and other entities on a scene that will then be used to produce a still picture or animation. If used in animation, this stage usually uses a technique called "keyframing", which facilitates the creation of complex movement in the scene. With the help of a keyframing frame, instead of having to fix the object's position, rotation, or size for each frame in an animation, one only needs to set up some keyframes in which states are rounded in each frame.

Lighting is an important aspect of scene preparation. As with real-time landscape coordination, lighting is an important contributing factor to the aesthetic and visual quality resulting from the final work. As such, art can be difficult to master. Lighting effects can contribute greatly to the mood and emotional response that occurs with a scene, a fact known to photographers and stage lighting technicians.

(Edit) Coverage with mosaics and grids as shown in (http://www.FaceYourArt.com)

The process of converting object representations, such as the centerpoint of a sphere and a point around its circumference into a polygonal representation of the sphere, is called mosaic. This step is used for polygon based rendering, where objects are divided from abstract representations (“elemental elements”) such as domains, cones, etc., to the alleged grids, which are interconnected triangle grids.

Triangle grids (instead of squares for example) are popular because they have proven easy to use with optical rendering.

Polygon representations are not used in all rendering techniques, in which cases the tessellation step is not included in the transition from abstract representation to the rendered scene.

(Edit) Submission as described in (http://www.FaceYourArt.com)

Rendering is the final process of creating the actual 2D image or animation from the prepared scene. This can be compared to taking a photo or photographing the scene after setting up in real life.

The rendering of interactive media, such as games and simulations, is calculated in real time, at a rate of approximately 20 to 120 fps. Non-interactive media animation, such as feature films and videos, is displayed more slowly. Real-time rendering allows the use of limited processing power to achieve higher image quality. Display times for individual frames may vary from a few seconds to several days for complex scenes. The rendered frames are stored on a hard disk, then they can be transferred to other media such as animated film or optical disk. These frames are then displayed sequentially at high frame rates, usually 24, 25 or 30 fps, to achieve motion illusion.

Many different and specialized presentation methods have been developed. These range from rendering a clearly unrealistic wireframe through polygon-based rendering to more advanced techniques such as: optical outline presentation, ray tracing, or radiation. In general, different methods are more suitable for either real-time presentation or real-time presentation.

In real-time rendering, the goal is to show as much information as the eye can handle in 30 fps (or one frame, in the case of 30 fps for animation). The goal here is basically speed, not realism. Indeed, exploits are made here the way you see the eye's world, so the final image displayed is not necessarily a picture of the real world, but the image that the eye can relate to closely. This is the primary method used in games, interactive worlds, VRML. The rapid increase in computer processing power allowed a progressively higher degree of realism even for real-time viewing, including technologies such as HDR rendering. Real-time rendering is often multi-sided and assisted by the computer's GPU.

An example of an x-ray image that usually takes seconds or minutes to display. The photo realism is clear.

When the goal is realism, techniques such as ray tracing or radiation are used. Rendering usually takes seconds order or sometimes even days (for one photo / one frame). This is the primary method used for digital media, artwork, etc.

The rendering program may simulate visual effects such as lens flares, field depth, or motion blur. These are attempts to simulate the visual phenomena resulting from the optical properties of cameras and the human eye. These effects can add realism to a scene, even if the effect is just a camera artifact.

The techniques were developed to simulate other natural effects, such as the interaction of light with various forms of matter. Examples of these technologies are particle systems (that can simulate rain, smoke, or fire), volumetric sampling (to simulate fog, dust, and other spatial atmospheric effects), and caustic (to simulate light with a focus on unbreakable surfaces of light, such as light ripples seen at the bottom of a basin Swimming), and scattering beneath the surface (to simulate light that reflects inside volumes of solid objects such as human skin).

The rendering process is computationally expensive, given the complex variety of simulated physical processes. Computer processing power has increased rapidly over the years, allowing for a progressively higher degree of realistic presentation. Movie studios that produce computer-generated animations usually take advantage of a rendering farm to create photos at the right time. However, lower hardware costs mean that it's quite possible to create small amounts of 3D animation on a home computer system.

Viewer output is often used as only one small portion of a completed motion picture scene. Multiple layers of materials can be presented separately and incorporated into the final shot using the fitting program.

(Edit) Exhibitors as they appear on (http://www.FaceYourArt.com)

Exhibitors are often included in 3D software packages, but there are some presentation systems used as extensions for common 3D applications. These application systems include:

AccuRender for SketchUp

Brazil r / s


The final render


Mental ray

Buff Ray

Realsoft 3D

Pixar RenderMan



Indigo Shower

(Edit) Projection

Projection perspective

Since the human eye sees three dimensions, the mathematical model represented inside the computer must be turned back in order for the human eye to relate the image to a realistic one. But the fact that the monitor – i.e. the screen – can only display two dimensions means that this mathematical model must be transferred to a 2D image. Often this is done using projection. Mostly using perspective perspective. The basic idea behind dropping a perspective, which is not surprising is the way the human eye works, is that distant objects are smaller in relation to the objects closest to the eye. Thus, to fold the third dimension on the screen, a corresponding operation is performed to remove it – in this case, a partitioning process.

Alphabet Projection is mainly used in CAD or CAM applications where scientific models require accurate measurements and maintain the third dimension.

(Edit) Reflection and shading models as shown in (http://www.FaceYourArt.com)

Modern 3D computer graphics rely heavily on a simplified reflection model called the Fung Reflection Model (it should not be confused with Fung Shading).

In light refraction, an important concept is the refractive index. In most 3D programming applications, this value is termed "refractive index", usually "IOR".

Common reflection techniques in 3D computer graphics include:

Flat Shading: Technology for shading each object’s polygon based on the “natural” polygon and the position and intensity of the light source.

Gouraud Shading: Invented by H. Gouraud in 1971, it's a quick, resource-conscious head-top shading technology used to simulate smooth shaded surfaces.

Texture mapping: A technique for simulating a large amount of surface detail by assigning images (textures) to polygons.

Fung Shading: Invented by Bui Tuong Phong, it is used to simulate distinctive highlights and shaded surfaces.

Bump Set: It was invented by Jim Blaine, a natural disorder technique used to simulate wrinkled surfaces.

Torrent shading: a technique used to imitate the shape of hand-drawn animation.

(Edit) 3D Graphics APIs

3D graphics have become very popular, especially in computer games, as specialized APIs (APIs) have been created to ease operations in all stages of computer graphics creation. These APIs have proven vital to PC graphics manufacturers, as they provide a way for programmers to access devices in an abstract way, while still taking advantage of the special hardware for this or that graphics card.

Computer Graphics APIs are especially common:

OpenGL and OpenGL shading language

OpenGL ES 3D API for embedded devices

Direct3D (a subset of DirectX)

Render Man

Render Ware

Glide API

TruDimension LC glasses and 3D API

There are also APIs for top-level 3D scene graphics that provide additional functionality above the API to provide a lower level. These libraries under active development include:



Java 3D


JSR 184 (M3G)

Vega Prime by MultiGen-Paradigm

Nvidia landscape graph




JMonkey Engine

Ehrlicht engine


UGS DirectModel (aka JT)


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