Information technology has affected every aspect of our lives over the past few decades in a colossal way, with the tourism and travel sector becoming a major beneficiary. The introduction of computers can be traced back to the early 1960s when the vacuum tube was the basic component of computer systems. This was largely ineffective and error prone and quickly gave way to transistors that were replaced by integrated circuits. Now technological advances have made it possible to integrate advanced graphics with motion pictures and sound in modern computers.
Tourism product being largely intangible to gain a lot of technology. Travel was considered a risk in the early days due mainly to knowledge that the terrain, climate, culture, and other destinations were limited or unknown. Only adventurers and men looking for newer pastures are those who have embarked on such trips. With the advent of information technology in the travel sector, things have changed. Travel has become more enjoyable and comfortable. The modern day traveler has a wide range of options to choose from, with the Internet being the preferred location for a potential traveler. Places of tourist interest and breathtaking beauty are largely unattractive due to the fact that they are not well marketed. The Internet in the early days did not support graphics, video, audio, etc., so tourism products could not be marketed effectively over the network. Now things have changed dramatically with the introduction of protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP). This made it easy to transfer graphical photos, music, videos and more over the network quickly and clearly. Thus tourism was effectively marketed online. This has led to the spread of tourism and travel sites.
There are a number of programs that cater to the needs of the tourism and hospitality sectors. Travel agencies, tourism companies, hotels, and others use modern systems equipped with powerful applications that run on huge databases. The computerized front desk has given elegance to modern paperless offices. Office automation has resulted in accurate and efficient information processing. Armed with the right information, the most powerful person in modern times. Computerized systems are used to extract information from large quantities from the data store in databases. Querying a database, whether it is for inquiries about reservations or ticket reservations, is in the hands of the end user. The customer is the king and has the right to a number of options to choose from when embarking on a trip or obtaining information about a tourist area.
Former users of computer systems had to be experts. Even starting the system requires a computer driver. Only then can the application be run. Now systems with a graphical user interface (GUI) and WYSIWYG technologies (what you see is what you get), even an ordinary person or child is able to operate a computer or access the Internet. A person who does not know the local language somewhere has information within their reach as touch screen facilities appear. Almost all banks have now introduced ATM (Automated Teller Machine) facilities at their workplaces to allow customers to access their account at any time of the day.
In the Kerala state scenario, the emergence of information technology is limited to travel agencies that use reservation systems and website development by governmental and non-governmental agencies. Also office automation is in place with the accounting process being also computerized. Kerala Tourism State Official Website has won many national and international awards as one of the best locations in tourism all over the world. In institutes of the education sector, such as the Kerala Institute of Tourism and Travel Studies (KITTS), transfer of IT education in the tourism sector by granting training to students in global distribution systems (GDS) and computerized applications. Kerala Tourism Development State (KTDC) fully booked their reservations and tourists can easily book a room online. Hotels have linked their systems with other global systems to establish a link around the world. Let us briefly study the applications of information technology in tourism.
Global distribution systems
Global Distribution Systems (GDS) have evolved over the years and have played a major role in making online travel possible. The computer reservation system (CRS) is used to store and retrieve information and perform travel related transactions. It was originally developed by airlines, but was later extended to travel agents as a sales channel. The CRS function has been extended and what has come to be known as global distribution systems. Major CRS operations that book and sell tickets to multiple airlines are known as GDS. Many airlines have chosen to withdraw most of their holdings to Global Distribution Systems since many systems are now within the reach of consumers through hotel portals, car rental agencies and other services in addition to airline tickets. Passenger or travel agent can select itinerary using GDS which is a global system connecting airlines, hotels, travel agencies, car rental companies, cruise ships, etc. AMADEUS is proud of a 31% market share, SABER followed by 30% of the market, GALILEO 26% and WORLDSPAN which captured 12% of the market.
Today's global distribution systems have the following capabilities
- Available and accessible 99.9% of the time
- Processing up to 17,000 messages per second during prime time
- It works on the latest project engineering systems
- Enjoy response times for a fraction of a second
- Capable of reserving many transactions
- It is possible to make changes to the itinerary until the last minute and complete the complex international directions for every country in the world
- Automates the time-consuming and complex flight repricing of flight routes
- Clients are allowed to send e-mail and faxes without leaving the system
- It allows customers to compare prices and availability in order to shop for the most convenient travel at the lowest cost
- It securely stores all data for tens of millions of travelers so customers can have the travel preferences they want
On a certain day, GDS can arrive
- Over a billion fare groups
- Over 95% of seats are available worldwide
- More than 750 airlines
- More than 50,000 hotels
- More than 400 tour operators
- Nearly 30,000 rental car sites
GDS systems are able to book
- One way and one seat
- Hotel rooms
- Rented car
- Bus and rail tickets
- Event and theater attractions
- Food reservations
- Itinerary changes
- Complex international directions
An electronic ticket or electronic ticket is a method by which passengers or a group of passengers can secure their seat in a commercial airline company by booking online. This greatly reduces the procedures associated with issuing a paper ticket, which consists of a number of copies. Both airlines and passengers benefit from this type of ticket. A copy of the ticket is stored in the computer where the customer can take out a printed copy directly on the plane if he does not carry the luggage. If there is luggage after obtaining a permit, passengers can board the plane. Customer can ask to send confirmation of hard copy by regular mail, but this is not required at the check-in office. The confirmation number is assigned to the passenger, along with the flight number, date, departure location and destination location. When checking in at the airport, the traveler simply provides a positive ID. Then the necessary boarding passes are issued, and the passenger can check the luggage and advance the security gate area.
The main advantage of electronic tickets is that they reduce reservation costs by eliminating the need to print paper documents and mail them. Another advantage is that it eliminates the possibility of losing important documents in the mail or sending them to the wrong address. It is estimated that around 25% of travelers worldwide book their tickets online resulting in a boom of low-cost flyers.
The Internet has created a new economic environment for doing business. E-commerce is a growing sector and many tourism companies are involved in developing their internet services including traditional travel agents, tour operators, national tourist offices, airlines, hotels, and other housing providers and car rental companies. The method of doing business is known as "e-tourism" and "e-tourism" & # 39;. The main differences from traditional markets are the speed with which information can be communicated and accessible globally and the minimum costs of setting up a business online.
Property management systems
As the term refers, property management systems refer to systems that have been used around the world to effectively manage and control various day-to-day and other procedures related to large property management. Even in Kerala, these systems are widely used.
The main tasks that PMS can handle are reservations, front office operations, some back office operations, and some administrative functions. PMS is commonly used to handle the accounting functions of different hotel departments. This is in addition to being the hub for all communication with other systems in the hotel. Just like the one who was isolated from the rest of his classmates while working, a stand-alone computer is of no use. Thus a networked environment is provided where the server can meet the needs of the end user who may be a receptionist manager or a waiter. This is achieved through systems networking and resource sharing. The program may be developed to suit hotel needs that may have a front end and a back end. The front end is the user interface, through which data can be entered or information retrieved. The back end may consist of an RDBMS that acts as a storage center. Queries and reports can be used to retrieve information. For example, if a guest wants to know the details related to tariffs during the off-season, a mouse click may be sufficient to retrieve the information.
Virtual reality systems
Virtual reality is a relatively new field associated with artificial intelligence and neural networks. Artificial intelligence is an area where technology has made rapid strides in recent years. God has blessed people with intelligence that ranges from their ability to remember things to inventing tools and making life more rewarding. It goes without saying that the human brain is an amazing and complex organ that has not yet been surpassed by the fastest super computer. It is doubtful that such a thing will happen in the future either. But AI has paved paths for new tools and robots that help men in dangerous and complex tasks.
Tourism in addition to natural attractions, theme parks, artificial horse riding, simulation etc. Singapore, Disneyland, etc., has some of the most wonderful human wonders thanks to IT and its applications. Private parks and horse riding, along with entertainment from delusions and dinosaurs, added miles to tourist destinations.
With the growing need to use the network, tourism has entered a new era. Virtual travel has become popular as a tourist if he wants to use various tools and the Internet, sit in his office or comfortable home and make virtual trips. Earlier there is a travelogue chair creators who are accustomed to designing a show of articles and audios. But now writing travel has been simplified simply because there is a large number of information in CDs, brochures and on the network.
There are even virtual travel agencies on the network that offer a tour through its gallery and provide a lot of information. Gone are the days when evidence used to transport travelers to ride many rooster and bull stories and feed customers with wrong information is over. The outbound travelers are more knowledgeable and many don't need an introduction to a destination they plan to visit.
In addition to a virtual tour of the real world, there are artificially created virtual worlds, pending exploration. These sites offer a free, downloadable, week-long package. After viewing this demo, the user can see the real things, if they register online and pay for it. This is a trend that is catching fast. After all the globalization that has shrunk the world, it will not be long before new destinations appear in the Internet world.
Travel systems recommendation
Travel has become an integral part of human life. The efforts made by travel agencies and tour operators along with inputs from government organizations have resulted in major changes that have alleviated the difficulties faced by the traveler. The modern day traveler has a large collection of options to choose from when planning his trip. Travel recommendation systems have been established although they are budding value for travel planning benefit. In the coming years, its importance as an instrument in travel planning assistance is indispensable. Some recommendation systems are available in the market that give the tourist operator or customer options to remove the tangibility associated with the product. Austria is one of the few countries that have provided recommendation regulations to the traveling public and have found a positive response from users. The travel plan recommendation consists of several aspects such as destination type, specific site information, specific seasonal recommendations, etc. All of this must be presented to the user in a way that is convenient for customers so that he can enter options for the system, which in turn will indicate the most recommended travel plan. These systems use artificial intelligence and fall under the category of expert systems.
Geographical Information Systems
The use of maps dates back centuries. The man used maps to direct and locate places. As computer and graphics technology progressed, maps were numbered and used to provide accurate and timely information to users. The databases were integrated with computer graphics in the field of geographic information systems.
GIS is used to display and analyze spatial data associated with databases. This relationship between spatial data and databases is the driving force behind the work of GIS. Maps can be extracted from the database and referenced from maps. When the database is updated, the linked map is also updated. The GIS database contains a wide range of information including geographical, social, political, environmental and demographic data. GIS technology is a computer-based data collection, storage and analysis tool that combines previously unrelated information into easily understood maps. GIS can perform complex analytical functions and present results visually as maps, tables or graphs, allowing decision makers to see the problems presented to them visually and then determine the best course of action.
GIS finds wide applications in the field of tourism, especially in the designation of tourist destinations, hotels, etc. The end user can select a destination and browse the hotel room where he plans to stay.
In general, it can be said that information technology has left an indelible mark in the application of tourism and travel. In the coming years, areas such as recommended travel systems, geographic information systems, space tourism and others will gain popularity and help give a new dimension to the travel and tourism sector. Kerala Tourism that established its presence in the bank's global market will use these applications to continue to drive the growth path. The growing international market has been given the forefront of information technology and will benefit more from it.