In the previous chapter, we learned what computer software and programming mean.
We therefore know that we need a language to be able to "speak" or communicate with a computer. There are three basic types of programming languages. However, the computer can only understand the machine language directly. The oldest computer programs were written in machine language.
Machine language: Expressed in two languages using only 0 and 1.
- Directly understood by the computer
- The treatment and results were very fast
- Being represented in binary form, it was extremely difficult to learn and understand humans
- All data and instructions had to be manually copied to the machine language (binary form) and all results from the machine language must be decoded to a human-readable form
- The coding and decoding took a long time
- The length of the program was large and therefore resulted in errors
Assembly language: This language has been applied using memory enhancement methods (human memory aids) with restricted use of machine language. This aid came in the form of abbreviations for standard recurring functions like AD or ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, HLT to stop or stop the program, etc. She also started using Octal or Hexadecimal symbols as short hands for binary symbols.
- Easier code compared to binary (machine language)
- Shorter programs
- Asymmetry: Abbreviations used by the assembly language differ from machine to machine. Consequently, each assembly language code is restricted to a specific device and requires the translator to convert it into a usable form
High Level Language (HLL): Write programs as "phrases" using limited vocabulary of the English language. Examples of high-level languages are: BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, CORAL-66, FORTH, etc. Infact, what we use today as a programming language are all examples of high-level languages.
- Achieved Standardization: It exceeds the shortage of machine-dependent code
- The use of the English language with the correct syntax made it easier to write programs
- Programs written in high-level languages are much shorter, varied and faster to work with and correct
We come to the end of our lesson today. After that, we take a quick look at some basic but important concepts that help to understand the concept of programming such as translators, algorithms, flowcharts, etc. before we start writing computer programs!